What is Spike Protein?
In SARS CoV virus, the genetic material is enveloped and is surrounded by a capsule that is made up of three types of proteins- Spike Protein, Membrane Protein and Envelope Protein.
The Spike Protein are protrusions on the surface of the virus like the spokes on top of a crown. Hence the SARS CoV virus is called as Corona Virus. It is a part of the structure of the virus.
What is the function of Spike Protein?
Spike protein has a receptor binding domain that helps it attach to the human host cell. It acts as a bridge in connecting the virus to the human cell.
What is the link between Spike Protein and the variants of Covid-19?
Mutation is a natural phenomenon in every living cell. The different strains of Covid-19 is based on the mutations in the Spike Protein (example; Delta Plus has been formed as a result of Delta acquiring a mutation called K417N in the spike protein).
What is the significance of Spike Protein?
Most of the vaccines developed are designed to target the Spike Protein. The vaccine induces formation of antibodies in our body that will go and attach to the Spike Proteins. Hence the receptor binding domain in the Spike Protein gets blocked and it cannot attach to the human cell and prevent transmission of its genetic material. Hence the cell will not get infected. This is called competitive inhibition.
What is SARS-COV-2 Spike Protein Antibody test?
The role of vaccine is to induce production of antibodies specific to the Spike Proteins. The SARS-COV-2 Spike Protein Antibody test can be conducted after 14 days from the second dose of vaccination. With the help of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein IgG we can measure the level of antibodies produced in the body after vaccination.